How Alzheimer's Affects the Brain

The changes that take place in the brain begin at the microscopic level long before the first signs of memory loss.

What goes wrong in the brain
The brain has 100 billion nerve cells (neurons). Each nerve cell connects to many others to form communication networks. In addition to nerve cells, the brain includes cells specialized to support and nourish other cells.

Groups of nerve cells have special jobs. Some are involved in thinking, learning and memory. Others help us see, hear, smell and tell our muscles when to move.
Brain cells operate like tiny factories. They receive supplies, generate energy, construct equipment and get rid of waste. Cells also process and store information and communicate with other cells. Keeping everything running requires coordination as well as large amounts of fuel
and oxygen.

Scientists believe Alzheimer’s disease prevents parts of a cell’s factory from running well. They are not sure where the trouble starts. But just like a real factory, backups and breakdowns in one system cause problems in other areas. As damage spreads, cells lose their ability to do their jobs and, eventually, die.

The role of plaques and tangles
The brains of individuals with Alzheimer’s have an abundance of plaques and tangles. Plaques are deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid that build up in the spaces between nerve cells. Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called tau that build up inside cells.

Though autopsy studies show that most people develop some plaques and tangles as they age, those with Alzheimer’s tend to develop far more and in a predictable pattern, beginning in the areas important for memory before spreading to other regions.

Scientists do not know exactly what role plaques and tangles play in Alzheimer’s disease. Most experts believe that they disable or block communication among nerve cells and disrupt processes the cells need to survive.

The destruction and death of nerve cells causes memory failure, personality changes, problems in carrying out daily activities and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

How Alzheimer’s spreads in the brain